Some theories confirm that time passes more slowly in space rather than on Earth. It seems that space itself makes time slow down when you take a special trip at a very high speed. The notion of time and space obeys several often inexplicable physical laws which require observation, reflection, analysis and demonstration. Einstein, Newton and Maxwell, the great physicists sought to understand space-time by exposing each of the analogical theories. But how can space-time be explained?
Several theories behind space-time
Space-time is at the very heart of the foundation of the Universe. It was thought that a truly satisfactory explanation could never be found for this phenomenon until physicists and theorists came across important discoveries. Certain research and experiments have indeed led to much more concrete results such as those carried out by the famous physicist Albert Einstein. Other scientists such as Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell have also advanced ideas that have to do with the gravity and movement of massive objects in space. But in any case, so far there are no absolute truths, they are based only on complex theories and equations.
All we can remember is that time is determined by speed as well as by gravity. The theory of relativity, the displacement of massive objects as well as the property of light then had a link which made it possible to understand the origin of space-time. Thus, the stars and planets slow down time, just as time passes more slowly near the sea rather than at the top of a mountain. You can even feel a small, even a tiny time difference between the feet and the head. But how do you explain the link between speed and gravity? In general, the more you travel at a very high speed in space, the more time slows down, however, even a lower gravity can accelerate time.
The notion of space-time is defined as a physical phenomenon based on the Einstein’s theory of relativity and which results from a rapid displacement at the speed of light as well as from the movement of the masses.
How to explain the birth of space-time?
Before Einstein’s studies, many scientists tried to demonstrate the existence of space-time through research, measurements, and experiments. Towards the end of the 19th century, large-scale work demonstrated the specificity of the components of light. We therefore considered an hypothesis stating that the speed of light always remains constant regardless of the circumstances. Henri Poincaré, at a time physicist and mathematician, even justified this hypothesis in 1898.
At the same time, other researchers claimed that objects changed mass and size according to their speed. It was on the basis of these observations that the law of special relativity was born in 1905. This theory explains that the speed of light remained the same for all observers and that this had a relationship between space and time. However, time and space then obey the principle of special relativity and are both modified by the speed of an observer.
It would seem afterwards thatHermann Minkowski, a German mathematician, found the answer to the foundation of space-time and that it was a unique fabric, the union of the two, that is to say of time and space , and that without this union, there is no reality. Of course, this concept results from calculations in the theory of relativity and that of quantum fields.
How can we imagine space-time in our reality?
According to Einstein in his theory of general relativity, space-time would look like rubber paper, much smoother and more fluid, and the fabric of space-time has curves that can determine the force of gravity. Thus, massive objects, in particular human beings, the sun or the earth, will create a deformation of these curves. The latter will therefore limit their way of moving in the Universe since the objects will take the paths along this curve. This movement resulting from gravity acts on the movement carried out along the rebounds of space-time.
More concrete evidence after a NASA mission called Gravity Probe B and launched in 2011 revealed the existence of this space-time vortex. Its shape then corresponded to Einstein’s perception. Besides, the undulations within space-time could justify the shape of the wormholes. But this is all the more inconceivable if we consider space-time as a sheet of rubber when the latter has only two dimensions. Thus, this sheet does not only represent the deformations in space but also in time. We can certainly work on more convoluted equations but all this seems to exceed all knowledge of physical reality.
But the answer apparently lies in relativity even if some explanations are incomplete. Relativity should indeed be combined with quantum mechanics, but this is not entirely the case. We can explain the subatomic particles and their properties well, but they should have a close connection with the force of gravity. Light is usually made up of particles and photons, and these tiny pieces of quantified light then make up the Universe. Other theorists have put forward another hypothesis on the origin of space-time which came from these quantified pieces and thus allow the connection between relativity and quantum mechanics.
The launch of the Grail Quest mission organized by the European Space Agency should be the last resort to accurately measure the powerful explosions of gamma rays around the planet. This investigation could then demonstrate the basis of the relativity of space-time and would allow all the more to unravel all the mysteries on the Universe. But this is still a future project which will probably not be launched for a decade.